1Gastroenterology Department , Hospital Senhora da Oliveira , Guimarães , Portugal.
2Life and Health Sciences Research Institute (ICVS), School of Medicine , University of Minho , Braga , Portugal.
3ICVS/3B's, PT Government Associate Laboratory , Guimarães/Braga , Portugal.
Perianal Crohn's disease (CD) prevalence varies according to the disease location, being particularly frequent in patients with colonic involvement. We aimed to evaluate small bowel involvement and compare small bowel capsule endoscopy findings and inflammatory activity between patients with and without perianal disease.
Materials and methods:
Retrospective single-center study including 71 patients - all patients with perianal CD (17 patients) who performed a small bowel capsule endoscopy were included, and non-perianal CD patients were randomly selected (54 patients). Clinical and analytical variables at diagnosis were reviewed. Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS v21.0 and a two-tailed p value <.05 was defined as indicating statistical significance.
Patients had a median age of 30 ± 16 years with 52.1% females. Perianal disease was present in 23.9%. Patients with perianal disease had significantly more relevant findings (94.1% vs 66.6%, p = .03) and erosions (70.6% vs 42.6%, p = .04), however, no differences were found between the two groups regarding ulcer, villous edema and stenosis detection. Overall, patients with perianal disease had more frequently significant small bowel inflammatory activity, defined as a Lewis Score ≥135 (94.1% vs 64.8%, p = .03), and higher Lewis scores in the first and second tertiles (450 ± 1129 vs 0 ± 169, p = .02 and 675 ± 1941 vs 0 ± 478, p = .04, respectively). No differences were found between the two groups regarding third tertile inflammatory activity assessed with the Lewis Score.
Patients with perianal CD have significantly higher inflammatory activity in the small bowel, particularly in proximal small bowel segments, when compared with patients without perianal disease.